How To Use DD On Windows Systems

DD is a forensic imaging tool. It’s been around for quite a while and sometimes is referred to as GNU dd. It is a command line program that accepts certain arguments to control its imaging functionality. If not used wisely you can accidentally destroy the media that you are trying to duplicate. So, it must be used with caution. When done correctly it creates raw image files that can then be further used by other forensic tools such as ENCase and FTK.

To get a copy of the dd utility for windows go to: http://www.chrysocome.net/downloads/dd-0.5.zip. It’s a free program distributed under a GPL (General Public License).

Then you can unzip the download onto your desktop or whichever directory you prefer.

For my demonstration, I created a couple of test partitions and then used the dd utility to do a volume copy of one partition to another. So I created a “G:” and  a “H:”.

Each partition had the exact same space for my first attempt but for my second attempt I gave the H partition an extra 1GB. Any time you wish to create an image using dd you need to make sure your output file storage area has enough capacity for the copy.

From there you open a command prompt as administrator. This requirement is most likely dictated by the security configuration of your PC so it may not be necessary depending on your security settings.

Navigate to the directory containing the unzipped dd executable.

After that you can use dd –list to get a list of the devices on your computer.

The basic structure of dd is:

dd if= of= bs=

Where “if” is your input file, “of” is your output file, and “bs” is your block size.

You can use null inputs such as /dev/zero to write zeros to a partition. This effectively wipes that partition or drive.

One note on block size. 512 Bytes is as low as it goes. The lower the block size the slower it takes so if you plan on copying a large drive the lower block size might dramatically increase the time it takes. A lower block size will be more accurate. You can chose sizes such as 512, 1024, 2048, 4096.

For my example I simply copied one partition to another.

This should have effectively copied one directory to another.

I repeated the process extending the size of the H: partition to 3GB and instead created an image with the dd command.

This worked as expected.

dd is an easy to user tool and provides effective imaging of a drive or partition bit-by-bit.

Two Factor Authentication: How To Secure Facebook Accounts

We discussed securing Google, Microsoft and Yahoo! and Twitter accounts. Today we discuss securing Facebook accounts.

1. Logged into Facebook with your username and password

2. On the top right of the webpage, click on the dropdown arrow to select “settings”

3. On the left top end, select “security”

4. Click on “login approvals.” Note: Make sure your cellphone number is added to your account

5. Check “Require a login code to access my account from unknown browsers”

6. Click on “get codes”

7. Enter your password

8. You will received an automated message

9. Enter the code to confirm your login approvals

Two Factor Authentication: How To Secure Twitter Accounts

We discussed securing Google, Microsoft and Yahoo! accounts. Now we will go through securing Twitter accounts.

  1. Login into account and go to setting.

  1. Select security and privacy and add your phone number.

 

  1. Add your phone number. Select caption continue.

  1. To verify your Phone Number the code is sent to your phone.
  2. You need to enter the code which activates your phone.

  1. From now onward whenever you login you twitter account beside your password you need to enter the code that is sent to your mobile device via sms.

 

  1. This way your 2 factor authentication is set up on your account.

 

Two Factor Authentication: How To Secure Yahoo! Accounts

We discussed securing gmail and hotmail accounts. We now will secure Yahoo! accounts. First login into your Yahoo! account then click on account info on the top right of the page, select the account security tag, and the toggle two-step verification.

 

 

After toggling two-step verification a window pops up. Select your country and enter in your mobile number and then either select ‘Send SMS’ or ‘Call Me’. For the purpose of this assignment I will go with ‘Send SMS’.

 

Enter the verification code that you are sent.

 

Success!

Two Factor Authentication: How To Secure Microsoft Accounts

We discussed securing Google accounts before. You can reach that content from here. The following walk-through illustrates how to install two-factor authentication for a Hotmail account.  These instructions assume you have the following: an Android smart phone and an alternate email address registered with your Hotmail account.  If you don’t then don’t fret, continue up to Step 3 then follow the on screen instructions.

Step 1:  Go to https://account.microsoft.com/proofs/Manage and sign in to your account.  Once signed in, click on the ‘Set up two-step verification’ link.

 

Step 2:  Click next.

 

Step 3:  Select a method to verify your identity.  (If you don’t have an alternate email address or Android, select the method that best fits your needs.)

Step 4:  Download and install the ‘Microsoft account’ app onto your smart phone.

 

Step 5:  Open the app and follow the on screen instructions to sign in to your account.  After signing in, you will be asked to verify your identity by having a security code emailed to your alternate email address.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Step 6:  Back on the website, select ‘Next’ to complete the setup.  Optionally, you can proceed further to create an app password for use on any devices that do not accept security codes.

The next time you or someone else tries to log into your account from another device, an alert will be sent to your phone to verify the login is authorized.  If not, reject the attempt.

Additional Resources

Microsoft FAQ: http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/two-step-verification-faq

 

Two Factor Authentication: How To Secure Your Google Accounts

  • You will first need to log-in to your Gmail account.
  • Click on your profile picture near the top right corner and a box with a few options will appear. You will need to click on the blue button named “My Account”.

 

  • A new tab will open with different kinds of options for your account. You will need to click on the “Sign-in & security” option.

 

  • Under “Sign-in & security” there is an option named “Signing in to Google”. You will need to click that link next.

 

  • Under the section “Signing in to Google” you need to click on the link option “2-Step Verification”

 

  • You will now be taken somewhere to begin the set up process. You will need to click the blue button named “Start setup”

  • You will be told to re-enter your password to continue with the set up process

  • The first step of the set up process would be to enter a valid phone number to be able to be sent the codes. You will also need to choose how to receive the codes they will be sending you for verification.

 

  • After you have entered the phone number a code will be sent to that number that you provided

  • The third step will ask if you trust the computer you are using to set up the two step verification. Leave the box checked if you do and if you don’t then make sure to uncheck the box.

The last step will just need you to confirm that you would like to turn on the 2-step verification.

 

  • After confirming you will be sent an email that tells you that you have successfully turned on the 2-step verification. The set up process is now done and no more steps need to be taken.

Another Adobe Flash Player Vulnerability

There is a new adobe flash player vulnerability found by Trend Micro.  Here is what you need to know:

  • Adobe told they would publish the fix next week. However they did faster job and published the fix yesterday.
  • The attacks seem to be targeted attacks against to government entities. However once exploit becomes available to larger audience then I would expect they would start attacking regular users too.
  • Mac, Linux, Windows are all affected  by this vulnerability.
  • You can download the latest adobe flash player here: https://helpx.adobe.com/security/products/flash-player/apsb15-27.html

If your company cannot update its flash player for some reason I would encourage them to block e-mails with following subject lines:

“Suicide car bomb targets NATO troop convoy Kabul”

“Syrian troops make gains as Putin defends air strikes”

“Israel launches airstrikes on targets in Gaza”

“Russia warns of response to reported US nuke buildup in Turkey, Europe”

“US military reports 75 US-trained rebels return Syria”

How To View Windows Registry On Linux

Introduction

Forensic Registry EDitor (fred) is a cross-platform Microsoft registry hive editor. It is GUI based registry editor that can work on Linux and has a built in hex viewer and data interpreter.

Installation

The best way to install this tool is listening its owner Daniel:

In order to automatically stay up-to-date when new versions are released, I recommend adding my repository to your software sources list. This is done by executing the following commands:

sudo wget -P /etc/apt/sources.list.d/ http://deb.pinguin.lu/pinguin.lu.list
wget -q http://deb.pinguin.lu/debsign_public.key -O- | sudo apt-key add -
sudo apt-get update

Once done, you can install packages by issuing:

sudo apt-get install fred fred-reports

 

Environment

I used a hard disk image of a Windows system.

# ewfmount myImage.E01 /mnt/ewf/
# mount -o ro,loop,show_sys_files,streams_interface=windows /mnt/ewf/ewf1 /mnt/windows_mount

I mounted my image in /mnt/windows_mount. Since I was using an E01 image, I used two step process to mount my image. For details on how to mount E01 image in Linux you can check this post. You don’t need to use E01 image. Any image you could mount in Linux i.e. raw image would be fine.

 

Usage

I will give some examples that shows how to use this powerful tool. First let’s cover the locations of hives. If you already  are familiar with Windows Registry you can skip this section and continue on Finding unique device serial number of a USB Key.

In Windows NT 4 (and later) the Registry is stored in the Windows NT Registry File (REGF) format (http://www.forensicswiki.org/wiki/Windows_Registry).

Basically the following Registry hives are stored in the corresponding files:

  • HKEY_USERS: \Documents and Setting\User Profile\NTUSER.DAT
  • HKEY_USERS\DEFAULT: C:\Windows\system32\config\default
  • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SAM: C:\Windows\system32\config\SAM
  • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SECURITY: C:\Windows\system32\config\SECURITY
  • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE: C:\Windows\system32\config\software
  • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM: C:\Windows\system32\config\system

1. Finding unique device serial number of a USB Key

This information is stored at SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet001\Enum\USBSTOR

We know that SYSTEM registry hives are stored in C:\Windows\system32\config\system

Lets go to the directory that we have system file (/WINDOWS/system32/config/system) I mounted it in the /mnt/windows_mount so I will type

cd /mnt/windows_mount/WINDOWS/system32/config

Then I can type the following to run fred on system file:

root@siftworkstation:/mnt/windows_mount/WINDOWS/system32/config# fred system

So it is the value I circled red.

 

fred1

2.What was  last time that a user opened a .doc file

This data stored  in NTUSER.DAT\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\RecentDocsn>

NTUSER.DAT is in \Documents and Setting\User Profile. First we need to go into that directory and run

fred NTUSER.DAT

fred2

So it is the value I circled red.

3.What was the last program a user ran using the Start->Run dialog.

We need to use fred and open NTUSER.DAT\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\RunMRU

fred3

At the right column we see what the user run using start->run.

Conclusion

Windows registry includes good information for investigators. Fred helps investigators to find the data they need in registry very easily. The best thing about Fred it is open source and cost you zero dollar…

I would love to hear from you about what you think about fred and  registry tools in general.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Forensics Netwars First Day

I was planning to attend DFIR Summit for last two years and now I am in Austin for that. As part of DFIR summit I am attending Forensics netwars. Forensics netwars is a fun practice that help you to remember the forensics knowledge you may forget and learn some new tricks. The best thing is if you screw up, that’s okay. You cannot damage anything but your netwars score…

I remembered the power of stat command when it comes to mac time.  I also found a new tool called Fred for analyzing registry.  I also remembered that -iname option will ignore case when you use it in “find” command.

I am planning to write how to install and use Fred this week.