Today I would like to write about CEH module 5, that is Scanning. The last module was covered on this blog was Footprinting can be found here If you want to see all the modules written about CEH, you can click “Certified Ethical Hacker” section at the right side bar.
Even tough I will talk about some general scanning techniques, my focus will be on practical knowledge of nmap that is heavily is tested on your CEH exam. I will not go deep on the nmap, you can do lots of cool stuff with it, but my focus will be its general usage for the ceh exam.
Nmap (Network Mapper) is a security scanner originally written by Gordon Lyon used to discover hosts and services on a computer network, thus creating a “map” of the network. To accomplish its goal, Nmap sends specially crafted packets to the target host and then analyzes the responses.
You need to know some basic options, scan types, IP addresses’ and ports’ formats in nmap.
-sT: connect scan -sX:XMAS scan
-sS: syn scan (half open) -sP: ping scan
-sF: fyn scan -sU:UDP scan
-sO: raw scan -O: OS detection
3 way hand shake will be performed on the connect scan, that is why this option is slow and will have lots of footprints on the target system.
Syn scan will only send SYN packets to targets. If the port is open then we will receive SYN+ACK other wise we will receive RST that indicates the port is closed…
Ping scan: This also known as ping sweep. Basically nmap will be pinging all the given machines and determine live hosts.
UDP scan: In case you want to see UDP ports, you need to run a UDP scan.
nmap -sS scanme.nmap.org/24 -p1-65535
nmap -sT -O 192.168.0.1-25 -p23
Security Policy and Compliance
- Ignore regulatory compliance requirements.
- Assume the users will read the security policy because you’ve asked them to.
- Use security templates without customizing them.
- Jump into a full-blown adoption of frameworks such as ISO 27001/27002 before you’re ready.
- Create security policies you cannot enforce.
- Enforce policies that are not properly approved.
- Blindly follow compliance requirements without creating overall security architecture.
- Create a security policy just to mark a checkbox.
- Pay someone to write your security policy without any knowledge of your business or processes.
- Translate policies in a multi-language environment without consistent meaning across the languages.
- Make sure none of the employees finds the policies.
- Assume that if the policies worked for you last year, they’ll be valid for the next year.
- Assume that being compliant means you’re secure.
- Assume that policies don’t apply to executives.
- Hide from the auditors.
- Deploy a security product out of the box without tuning it.
- Tune the IDS to be too noisy, or too quiet.
- Buy security products without considering the maintenance and implementation costs.
- Rely on anti-virus and firewall products without having additional controls.
- Run regular vulnerability scans, but don’t follow through on the results.
- Let your anti-virus, IDS, and other security tools run on “auto-pilot.”
- Employ multiple security technologies without understanding how each of them contributes.
- Focus on widgets, while omitting to consider the importance of maintaining accountability.
- Buy expensive product when a simple and cheap fix may address 80% of the problem.
- Attempt to apply the same security rigor to all IT assets, regardless of their risk profiles.
- Make someone responsible for managing risk, but don’t give the person any power to make decisions.
- Ignore the big picture while focusing on quantitative risk analysis.
- Assume you don’t have to worry about security, because your company is too small or insignificant.
- Assume you’re secure because you haven’t been compromised recently.
- Be paranoid without considering the value of the asset or its exposure factor.
- Classify all data assets as “top secret.”
- Don’t review system, application, and security logs.
- Expect end-users to forgo convenience in place of security.
- Lock down the infrastructure so tightly, that getting work done becomes very difficult.
- Say “no” whenever asked to approve a request.
- Impose security requirements without providing the necessary tools and training.
- Focus on preventative mechanisms while ignoring detective controls.
- Have no DMZ for Internet-accessible servers.
- Assume your patch management process is working, without checking on it.
- Delete logs because they get too big to read.
- Expect SSL to address all security problems with your web application.
- Ban the use of external USB drives while not restricting outbound access to the Internet.
- Act superior to your counterparts on the network, system admin, and development teams.
- Stop learning about technologies and attacks.
- Adopt hot new IT or security technologies before they have had a chance to mature.
- Hire somebody just because he or she has a lot of certifications.
- Don’t apprise your manager of the security problems your efforts have avoided.
- Don’t cross-train the IT and security staff.
- Require your users to change passwords too frequently.
- Expect your users to remember passwords without writing them down.
- Impose overly-onerous password selection requirements.
- Use the same password on systems that differ in risk exposure or data criticality.
- Impose password requirements without considering the ease with which a password could be reset.
Thanks for Lenny Zelster for its awesome cheat sheet. For original document please see http://zeltser.com/security-management/suck-at-security-cheat-sheet.html. If you have any suggestions other than the ones at above, let me know! email@example.com
Setting up network on linux machine can be a little challenging if you want to do static ip address.
First you need to be familiar with networking files and commands in linux.
Briefly ifconfig is the command you will use oftenly.
ifconfig will list network interfaces with their IP, and broadcast, netmask.
To see your gateway use route -n
Where is your dns servers?
Well check /etc/resolv.conf
If you want to use dhcp (which is by default on all Debian based systems) you should not touch any of these.
However what if you need to use static configuration?
Then lets take a look at our interfaces file /etc/network/interfaces
Typical static logical device configuration
# The primary network interface
iface eth1 inet static
# The secondary network interface
iface eth0 inet dhcp
Here eth1 was configured to use a static IP: 188.8.131.52
netmask, network, broadcast and gateway ips are also defined here as well as dns-nameservers.
auto means interface will automatically be up after boot.
as you see eth0 use dhcp configuration.
If you want to just change the gateway i then
ifconfig eth1 down
route add default gw 192.1o.119.254
ifconfig eth1 up
For more info you can check this document: http://www.linuxhomenetworking.com/wiki/index.php/Quick_HOWTO_:_Ch03_:_Linux_Networking#How_to_Change_Your_Default_Gateway
The first step for penetration testers is getting information about the system. Traceroute is a great tool for this purpose.
Traceroute shows the route between you and the target machine. Linux has a command line utility called traceroute.
traceroute uses UDP.
Windows has a tool called tracert.
tracert uses ICMP.
It is quite common for firewalls to be configured to block ICMP or UDP and thereby prevent Traceroute from returning useable information.
One program designed to get around this issue is Michael Toren’s TCPTraceroute.
TCPTraceroute uses TCP SYNpackets insted of ICMP or UDP and is able to bypass common firewall filters.
TCPTraceroute is currently available for only Linux. You can install on your debian based machine by using apt-get:
sudo apt-get install tcptraceroute
As a penetration tester to gain information about the target system, you need to be familiar with several tools. One of these tools is tcptraceroute. It can bypass most of the firewalls since it uses TCP unlike tracert and traceroute.
DDoS stands for Distributed Denial Service attack. It is hard to protect your network from this attack, however it is not impossible. In this first blog post I am explaning what is DDoS. Next articles will be focuses on some real solutions for this attack